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APA Citation Style

Web Sites and Web Pages

Entire Web Site

Citation in Reference list not required. Simply provide the website address in the text (in parentheses).

Stand Alone Webpage

Reference List Generic

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved date from URL

Website with no author: use title in place of author

Title of document [Format description]. (Date). Retrieved from URL

Website with no date: use n.d. in place of date

AuthorLastname, F. I. (n.d.). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from URL

Reference List

Government webpage

Statistics Canada. (2014, September 26). Population by year, province and territory. (CANSIM, table 051-0001). Retrieved January 22, 2015 from the http://www.statcan.gc.ca.ezproxy.msvu.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/demo02a-eng.htm

Webpage with page editor, but no date

Steintrager, M. O. (Ed.). (n.d.). Healthy-eating tips and light party recipes for the holidays. Retrieved from http://www.epicurious.com/articlesguides/healthy/news/holidayhealthyeatingtips

Webpage with corporate author

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2009, May 28). NASA astronaut watches new Star Trek movie in space. Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/behindscenes/star_trek.html

American Red Cross. (2015, January 26). A home fire escape plan can save your life. Retrieved from http://www.redcross.org/news/article/A-Home-Fire-Escape-Plan-Can-Save-Your-Life

Comments

  • If only author's screen name is available, use that in place author name.
  • Use italics for book, brochure, report or document titles; the title or name of a web page is not italicized.
  • The abbreviation n.d. is used when no date of publication is provided.
  • Include retrieval date when the information could change over time (APA Manual, p. 192).

Online Document and Reports

Document from organization, university or department website

Reference List Generic

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Date). Report title (Report No. XXX). Retrieved from  Organization, Department URL

Reference List

Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies, http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.html

United Nations document or report

United Nations Development Programme. (2014).Bridging the divide: addressing vulnerability and inequality. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/bridging-divide-addressing-vulnerability-and-inequality

Comments

  • If a document that presents an organization’s philosophy, position or policy is contained within a large and complex web site, identify the host organization and the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself.

Mobile Apps

Entire Mobile App

Reference List Generic

Rightsholder, A. A. (year). Title of Software or Program (Version number) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Reference List

Merriam-Webster (2017). Merriam-Webster Dictionary (Version 4.1) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com

Entry from an app containing reference material

Diabetes. (2013). In Epocrates Essentials for Apple iOS (Version 5.1) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://www.epocrates.com/mobile/iphone/essentials

Source: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/03/how-to-cite-a-mobile-app.html

Other Online Sources

Generic Online Posting

AuthorLastname, F. I./ScreenName. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Description of form]. Retrieved date from URL

Comment

  • If only author's screen name is available, use that in place author name.
  • Include retrieval date when the information could change over time (APA Manual, p. 192).
  • For additional examples, see pages 214-215 in the APA Publication Manual (2010).

Blog

Geist, M. (2007, November 27). Universal Music CEO on technology [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.michaelgeist.ca/content/view/2413/196

rjlipton. (2015). A fast graph isomorphism algorithm [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://rjlipton.wordpress.com/2015/11/11/a-fast-graph-isomorphism-algorithm

Map Retrieved Online

Lewis County Geographic Information Systems (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic map]. Retrieved from http://www.co.lewis.wa.us/publicworks/maps/Demographics/census-pop-dens_2000.pdf

Message Posted to Newsgroup, Discussion Group, Online Forum, etc.

Rampersad, T. (2005, June 8). Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://www.wipo.int/roller/comments/ipisforum/Weblog/theme_eight_how_can_cultural#comments

Message Posted to Electronic Mailing List

Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/ForensicNetwork/message/670

Comments

  • "Listserv" is a trademarked name for a specific software program, so use "electronic mailing list" instead.

Podcast

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19).Shrink rap radio[Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/

Wiki

Market research. (2010, November 20). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopaedia. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marketing_research&oldid=173254885

Retrieval Dates

When citing information from web sites, sometimes you use a retrieval date and other times you do not. For example:

Retrieval Date

Market research. (2010, November 20). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopaedia. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org /w/index.php?title=Marketing_research&oldid=173254885

No Retrieval Date

The royal family [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.gates.edu.uk/art/family/objects/o407.html

Comments

  • Include retrieval date when the information could change over time (APA Manual, p. 192).
    • For example, a citation for an html web page, a web page that is frequently updated, or a wiki entry because this kind of information can change.
  • Do not include a retrieval date for stable information sources,
    • For example, a citation for PDF files, videos, or photographs. These sources are less likely to change, though they sometimes disappear!

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