use when page numbers are unavailable. Use in place of page number, preceded by the abbreviation para.
use when neither page nor paragraph numbers are available. In order to direct the reader, cite heading and paragraph that follows.
use when neither page nor paragraph numbers are available, and full headings are too long. Use a short portion of the heading enclosed in quotation marks.
|First Citation in Text||Subsequent Citations in Text||Parenthetical Format, First Citation in Text||Parenthetical Format, Subsequent Citations in Text|
|One work by one author||Walker (2007)||Walker (2007)||(Walker, 2007)||(Walker, 2007)|
|One work by two authors||Walker and Allen (2004)||Walker and Allen (2004)||(Walker & Allen, 2004)||(Walker & Allen, 2004)|
|One work by three to five authors||Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999)||Bradley et al. (1999)||(Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999)||(Bradley et al., 1999)|
|One work by six or more authors||Wasserstein et al. (2005)||Wasserstein et al. (2005)||(Wasserstein et al., 2005)||(Wasserstein et al., 2005)|
|Groups as authors (readily identified through abbreviation)||National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003)||NIMH (2003)||(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003)||(NIMH, 2003)|
|Groups as authors (no abbreviation)||University of Pittsburgh (2005)||University of Pittsburgh (2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)|
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. p. 177.
Note: personal communication that is recorded or recoverable should be referenced like archival material.
APA (see APA, section 6.17, p.178) recommends that secondary sources should be used sparingly unless when the original work is out of print, unavailable through usual sources, or not available in English.
In case you used a secondary source, list the secondary source in your reference list, name the original work and use an in-text citation for the secondary source.
According to Axelrod (as cited in Moore, 2009), it is important to…
Then you would cite the source that you have read in your reference list located at the end of the paper.
Moore, C. (2009). Fairness in children's resource allocation depends on the recipient. Psychological Science, 20(8), 944-8.