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Applied Human Nutrition

Applied Human Nutrition

Citation Style

Dr. Grant's courses (NUTR2211, NUTR3325/GAHN6325, NUTR4408/GAHN6408, NUTR4409/GAHN6409, GAHN6602) use the Vancouver citation style.

This is an endnote citation very similar to the Uniform Requirements and the style used by the Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research.  Both these style follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for citation.


The Vancouver style requires that you cite your references numerically in the text, numbered in parentheses in order of citation. The full references are listed at the end of the paper as endnotes. See the sample page below.

Document Formatting

All typed assignments for Dr. Shannan Grant must follow the following formatting requirements:

  • 12 point Times New Roman font
  • 1.5 point spacing
  • 2 cm margins (4 corners)
  • Vancouver format/citation style (available in RefWorks; examples provide below)
  • Include your name and student number in the header – right hand corner
  • Include course code in footer - bottom left corner
  • Include pages numbers (format page x of y) in footer - bottom right corner

Writing Style

While the Vancouver style does not require that you reference authors by name in the body of your paper, occasionally you may wish to do so to stress significance or for clarity.  If doing so please use the following format:

  • For articles with a single author add the date following their name: Solhi (2014)
  • For articles with 2 authors, use “and” in the in-text reference:   Mazan and Hoffman (2001)
  • For articles with 3 or more authors, list only the first, followed by “et al.”:   Smart et al. (2003)

At the end of the sentence insert an endnote number.  For example: 

  • Frost et al. (1994) showed that people can successfully and significantly lower diet-GI after verbal and written communication (26).

Vancouver Style - Sample Text and References

Examples provided from Dr. Grant's published work:

Excerpt 1: Glycaemic-index (GI) first appeared in the literature in the early 1980s as a means by which to categorize carbohydrate according to glycaemic effect postprandially (1,2). Carbohydrate containing foods can be categorized according to the following GI classes: low-GI (<55); medium GI (55 to 69) and high GI (≥70) (3). The GI is based upon a glucose (reference) scale where glucose has a GI of 100 (using standardized methodology). For instance, the high GI cut point can be expressed as 70/100 (4). Postprandially, starchy foods included in the low-GI category are absorbed more slowly across the intestine than medium or high GI foods. Slow postprandial intestinal absorption of starchy low-GI food results in a gradual increase in blood glucose (BG) and lower peak BG when compared to the prominent peak in BG observed after consuming a high GI food (2,4,5).…

Excerpt 2: …Although these data were published after the publication of the following statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) (2005): “…use of GI can provide additional benefit over that observed when total carbohydrate is considered alone”, American health agencies traditionally were in opposition to GI utility (21,37,38). This traditional position most likely affected the sample’s (American RDs’) perception of GI application. Conversely, Frost et al. (1994) showed that people can successfully and significantly lower diet-GI after verbal and written communication (26). Similar success has been noted by others (28,39).

Reference List:

1. Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH. Glycemic index of foods: A physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34(3):362-366.

2. Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL, Josse RG. The glycemic index: Methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54(5):846-854.

3. Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA). The glycemic index tool. Available online: http://archive.diabetes.ca/files/GlycemicIndex_08.pdf (accessed 14 April 2015).

4. Wolever TMS. The glycaemic index: A physiological classification of dietary carbohydrate. Cambridge, MA: CABI; 2006.

5. Wolever TMS. Physiological mechanisms and observed health impacts related to the glycaemic index: Some observations. Int J Obes 2006;30 (Suppl 3):S72–S78.

21. Franz MJ. In defense of the American Diabetes Associations recommendations on the glycemic index. Nutr Today 1999;34(2):78–81.

26. Frost G, Wilding J, Beecham J. Dietary advice based on the glycaemic index improves dietary profile and metabolic control in Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 1994;11(4):397–401.

28. Brand-Miller J, Hayne S, Petocz P, Colagiuri S. Low-glycemic index diets in the management of miabetes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 2003;26(8):2261–2267.

37. American Diabetes Association. American Diabetes Association: Clinical practice recommendations 2005. Introduction. Diabetes Care 2005;28 (Suppl 1):S1–S2.

38. Franz MJ, Bantle J, Beebe CA, Brunzell JD, Chiasson J, Garg A, Holzmeister LA, Hoogwerf B, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian A, Purnell JQ, Wheeler M. American Diabetes Association position statement: Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. J Am Diet Assoc 2002;102(1):109–118.

39. Gilbertson HR, Thorburn AW, Brand-Miller JC, Chondros P, Werther GA. Effect of low‑glycemic-index dietary advice on dietary quality and food choice in children with type 1 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77(1):83–90.

RefWorks

RefWorks allows you to create a personal citation database.  You can import references from article databases into your RefWorks account.  When writing papers, you are able to choose from the various citation styles, and RefWorks will automatically format a bibliography based on the references in your database.

While RefWorks is a time-saver, it is imperative that you proof-read your in-text and endnote citations to ensure accuracy.

More Resources

NUTR/GAHN Course Information

Course descriptions and information are available on the departmental page:
          ►  Undergraduate Program
          ►  Graduate Program


This guide is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License.
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