Examples provided from Dr. Grant's published work:
Excerpt 1: Glycaemic-index (GI) first appeared in the literature in the early 1980s as a means by which to categorize carbohydrate according to glycaemic effect postprandially (1,2). Carbohydrate containing foods can be categorized according to the following GI classes: low-GI (<55); medium GI (55 to 69) and high GI (≥70) (3). The GI is based upon a glucose (reference) scale where glucose has a GI of 100 (using standardized methodology). For instance, the high GI cut point can be expressed as 70/100 (4). Postprandially, starchy foods included in the low-GI category are absorbed more slowly across the intestine than medium or high GI foods. Slow postprandial intestinal absorption of starchy low-GI food results in a gradual increase in blood glucose (BG) and lower peak BG when compared to the prominent peak in BG observed after consuming a high GI food (2,4,5).…
Excerpt 2: …Although these data were published after the publication of the following statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) (2005): “…use of GI can provide additional benefit over that observed when total carbohydrate is considered alone”, American health agencies traditionally were in opposition to GI utility (21,37,38). This traditional position most likely affected the sample’s (American RDs’) perception of GI application. Conversely, Frost et al. (1994) showed that people can successfully and significantly lower diet-GI after verbal and written communication (26). Similar success has been noted by others (28,39).
1. Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH. Glycemic index of foods: A physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34(3):362-366.
2. Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL, Josse RG. The glycemic index: Methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54(5):846-854.
3. Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA). The glycemic index tool. Available online: http://archive.diabetes.ca/files/GlycemicIndex_08.pdf (accessed 14 April 2015).
4. Wolever TMS. The glycaemic index: A physiological classification of dietary carbohydrate. Cambridge, MA: CABI; 2006.
5. Wolever TMS. Physiological mechanisms and observed health impacts related to the glycaemic index: Some observations. Int J Obes 2006;30 (Suppl 3):S72–S78.
21. Franz MJ. In defense of the American Diabetes Associations recommendations on the glycemic index. Nutr Today 1999;34(2):78–81.
26. Frost G, Wilding J, Beecham J. Dietary advice based on the glycaemic index improves dietary profile and metabolic control in Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 1994;11(4):397–401.
28. Brand-Miller J, Hayne S, Petocz P, Colagiuri S. Low-glycemic index diets in the management of miabetes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 2003;26(8):2261–2267.
37. American Diabetes Association. American Diabetes Association: Clinical practice recommendations 2005. Introduction. Diabetes Care 2005;28 (Suppl 1):S1–S2.
38. Franz MJ, Bantle J, Beebe CA, Brunzell JD, Chiasson J, Garg A, Holzmeister LA, Hoogwerf B, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian A, Purnell JQ, Wheeler M. American Diabetes Association position statement: Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. J Am Diet Assoc 2002;102(1):109–118.
39. Gilbertson HR, Thorburn AW, Brand-Miller JC, Chondros P, Werther GA. Effect of low‑glycemic-index dietary advice on dietary quality and food choice in children with type 1 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77(1):83–90.