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APA Citation Style


APA provides few instructions or examples on citing images. These examples provide the basic details necessary for a Reference list.

Online Images

Reference List Generic

Author. Date. Title of work [Description of form]. Retrieved from URL.

Screen name

Screen name. Date. (that image was uploaded to flickr site). Title of work [Description of form]. Retrieved Date from URL.

No author/creator, no date.

Title of work [Description of form]. Retrieved date from URL.

Reference List

Miflin, G. (2008). The royal family [Image]. Retrieved from

O'Rear, C. (1972, May). Hitchhiker with his dog "Tripper" on U.S. 66 [Photograph]. Retrieved from

Screen name

Boy_Wonder. (2009, December 7). The grinch [Image]. Retrieved from

No author/creator, no date.

Banff National Park [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2009 from

Human nervous system [Image]. (2017, September 20). Retrieved October 1, 2017 from

Mikuckis, T. (n.d.). Coffee [Image]. Retrieved September 30, 2017 from


Date Information
  • Date is included to provide some reference point when no creation or copyright date is available, use the upload date, if no date information is available it is not required.
No titles
  • If an image has no title, give it an appropriate title and then follow the rules provided above.  The image of "Coffee" above had no assigned title.
Screen Names
  • When a creator or uploader's name is unavailable, use the screen name.
  • The capitalization [or lack thereof] in the screen name is in keeping with how it appears online.
  • Use italics for standalone items (e.g., book, e-book, report [technical, government, etc.], dissertation, thesis, film, video, television series, podcast, YouTube video, artwork, map, music album, paintings, photos, unpublished manuscript). Do not use italics for something that is part of a greater whole (e.g., journal article, book chapter, e-book chapter, newspaper article, magazine article, blog post, television episode, webisode, webpage, tweet, Facebook update, encyclopedia entry, Wikipedia entry, dictionary entry, song).

Online Video - Youtube, Vimeo, TED, News Report etc.

Reference List Generic

Author, A. A. [or Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

Reference List

Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Retrieved from

Writer or director is different from uploader

Berners-Lee, T. (2006, August 20). Tim Berners-Lee (M.I.T.), father of the World Wide Web comments on net neutrality and the freedom of the Internet [Video file]. Retrieved from


  • In this example, Tim Berners-Lee is the video's writer and performer; he is responsible for the intellectual content of the video. This is different from the person who uploaded the video ("heikoxxxxxx" has this credit). If you are uncertain who to list as an author, ask yourself, "Who is responsible for the intellectual content?"

Online video, no author/director

Title of video. [Medium]. (Date of publication). Retrieved from URL on the web

No colors: Racism and prejudice in modern Europe [Video file]. (2007). Retrieved March 31, 2017, from

Online video with director

Diroctor name. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of video. [Medium]. Retrived from URL on the web

Melamede, Y. (Director). (2015). (Dis)Honesty: The Truth About Lies. [Video file]. Retrieved March 31, 2017, from

TED Talk video

  • If the video was viewed on TED website, the reference would be as follows:

Reference list:

Abu Sarah, A. (2014, March). Aziz Abu Sarah: For more tolerance, we need more ... tourism? [Video file]. Retrieved from

In-text citation:

In text citation Abu Sarah (2014) or (Abu Sarah, 2014)

  • If the Ted Talk video was viewed on YouTube, then it would be referenced as follows:

Reference list:

TED. (2015, January 7). Aziz Abu Sarah: For more tolerance, we need more ... tourism? [Video file]. Retrieved from

In-text citation:

TED (2015) or (TED, 2015)

Offline Recordings

Entire Albums

The Beatles. (1970). Let it be [Record]. United States: United Artists.

Individual Songs

Glover, Frank. (2009). One way ticket. On Politico [CD]. n.l.: Owl Studios.

Rerecording by Artist other than Writer

Goodenough, J. B. (1982). Tails and trotters [Recorded by G. Bok, A. Mayo, & E. Trickett]. On And so will we yet [CD]. Sharon, CT: Folk-Legacy Records.

Spoken Word Recording

Darling, S. (Speaker). (1988).To kill a mockingbird(Cassette). United States: Recorded Books.

Musical Score

Beethoven, Ludwig van. (1932).Symphony no. 7 in A, op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson.

Motion Picture

Spielberg, S. (Director). (1982). E.T. the Extra-terrestrial [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

Single Episode from Television Series

David, L., & Seinfeld, J. (Writers). (1995). The soup nazi [Television series episode]. In Seinfeld. New York: NBC.

Audio podcast

Greger, M. (producer). (2017, March 16). What about vitamin supplements? [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Video podcast

Greger, M. (producer). (2017, March 1). Does aspartame cause cancer? [Video podcast]. Retrieved from