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PowerPoint slides

Boeninger, C. F. (2008, August). Web 2.0 tools for reference and instructional services [Presentation slides]. Retrieved from

Conference presentation

Anderson, D. N. (2008, May). Cab-hailing and the micropolitics of gesture. Paper presented at the Arizona Linguistics and Anthropology Symposium, Tucson, AZ.

Performances & Personal Communications

"Personal communication" includes private letters, memos, non-archived electronic communications, personal interviews, etc. Because personal communications do not provide recoverable data, they are not included in the reference list. The same is true of live performances.

Instead, you should cite these sources in the body of your paper. Include the initial and last name of the communicator, as well as an exact a date, if possible.

Personal Communication

In-text Citation

M. E. Daniels, Jr. (Personal communication, July 4, 2009), explained in an email that...

Reference List

not included

Class notes (p. 179 section 6.20)

  • Cite information from your own personal notes from a lecture as a personal communication and refer to it only in the body of your essay.
  • Do not list it in the Reference list section.

In-text Citation

In a lecture on November 16, 2012, in PSYC 1102 class, Professor Davies discussed the following:

Reference List

not included

Live Performance

  • Recordings and archived copies of performances and personal communication do provide recoverable data.
  • These forms should be referenced in your Reference list.
  • Use citations for audiovisual material (video, online forum post, tape recording, etc.) as a guide.

In-text Citation

(Butler Ballet, performance, December 13, 2008)

Reference List

not included

Business Documents

Generic Document

AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Document title [Document type]. Location: Publisher.

AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Document title [Document type]. Retrieved from

AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Document title [Document type]. doi:xxxxx

Annual Report

Honda Motor Co. (2004). Annual report. Retrieved from


Research and Training Center on Independent Living. (1993). Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities (4th ed.) [Brochure]. Lawrence, KS: Author.

Fact Sheet

Boy Scouts of America. (n.d.). Merit badge program [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from

Press Release

Department of Athletics, Trinity University. (2008, January 7). Trinity wins Pontiac game changing performance of the year award [Press release]. Retrieved from Pontiac_GCPOY.htm

Thesis or Dissertation

Thesis or Dissertation - Generic

In-Text Citation

(AuthorLastname, Year)

(AuthorLastname, Year, p. #)

Reference List

AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Degree level). Location: Name of degree granting institutions.

AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Degree level). Retrieved from Database (Assession #).

AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Degree level). doi:xxxxx


  • Identify the work as a doctoral dissertation / master’s thesis in parentheses after the title
    • I.e. (Master's thesis) or (Dissertation)
  • If the paper was retrieved through a library database, give the accession or order number at the end of the reference. This can be located within the first pages of the thesis text.

Thesis or Dissertation

In-Text Citation

(Buckner, 2007)

Reference List

Retrieved from a subscription database (7.05, 40)

Buckner, A. L. (2007). Appetite awareness training in the prevention of eating disorders (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (AAT 3273686)

Online open access - Retrieved from Theses Canada Portal or university web site etc. (7.05, 42)

Roth, D. H. (2004). Adult reflections on childhood verbal abuse (Master’s thesis, University of Saskatchewan). Retreived from