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Overview of Endnotes and Footnotes

This method of documentation follows a two-part system, comprising both a series of notes, placed either at the foot of
the page (footnotes) or on a separate page at the end of the paper (endnotes), and a list of all works consulted

Notes are numbered consecutively within the text, beginning with 1. Use superscript numbers¹ placed at the end of the
passage to be cited. Within the notes themselves, numbers are normally full size, not raised, and followed by a period
and a space.

Long notes versus short notes (14.14)

The first time a work is cited, a full note or citation must be given. However, abbrevieated notes may be used in all further documentation of that work.


      1. Max Plowman, An Introduction to the Study of Blake (London: Gollancz, 1982), 32.

      19. Plowman, Study of Blake, 125.


Ebooks (14.166-14.167)

There are two major factors to consider when citing ebooks. First, electronic formats may not have consistent page numbers. In these cases, use the chapter, section, or another indicator, as per the examples below. (14.166)

        1. Doug Abbott. Linux for Embedded and Real-Time Applications, 3rd ed. (Burlington: Newnes, 2012), EPUB e-book, chap. 3.

        8. Abbott, Linux, chap 4.

Secondly, the Chicago Manual of Style makes a distinction between ebooks that are downloaded (e.g. PDF or EPUB files), versus those that are accessed online. The example above shows you what notes for a downloaded book will look like, while the examples below show you what notes for a book that was accessed online look like. Note that in downloaded books, the page number (or section indicator) appears at the very end of the citation, while in books that are accessed online, the place indicators appear before the URL or DOI. (14.166, 14.167)

         10. Doug Abbot, Linux for Embedded and Real-Time Applications. 3rd ed. (Burlingrton: Newnes, 2012), chap 3,                  

         12. Abbott, Linux, chap 4.

         13. Dmitry Korzun and Andrei Gurtov, Structured Peer-to-Peer Systems: Fundamentals of Hierarchical Organization,
      Routing, Scaling, and Security (New York: Springer, 2013), chap 2, doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-5483-0.

          17. Korzun and Gurtov, Structured Peer-to-Peer Systems, chap 5.



Ibid. (14.29)

When references to the same work follow each other without any other reference in between, the abbreviation Ibid., from
the Latin, ibidem, meaning “in the same place” may be used.

For example, a second mention of the same page of Plowman’s work, with no intervening reference, requires only ibid.

      22. Ibid.

If there is no intervening reference and the second reference to Plowman’s work is for a different page, then the reference
would be:

      23. Ibid., 68.

Need More Help?

For additional assistance with citation styles, consult your professor or the research help service at the Mount Library. 

You can reach the Library by email:  Please note: The Library will help you as much as possible but they may also refer you back to your professor.