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Videos, Images & Music


Cite images (photographs, paintings, charts, maps, etc.) in the text in the same way you cite other sources: author, creator, or artist and the date.

Reference List  

[Photographs of Robert M. Yerkes]. (ca. 1954). Robert Mearns Yerkes Papers (Box 137, Folder 2292). Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library, New Haven, CT.

In-text Citation Yerkes (1954) or (Yerkes, 1954)

Audiovisual Media

Entire Albums

The Beatles. (1970). Let it be [Record]. United States: United Artists.

Individual Songs

Glover, Frank. (2009). One way ticket. On Politico [CD]. n.l.: Owl Studios.

Rerecording by Artist other than Writer

Goodenough, J. B. (1982). Tails and trotters [Recorded by G. Bok, A. Mayo, & E. Trickett]. On And so will we yet [CD]. Sharon, CT: Folk-Legacy Records. (1990)

Spoken Word Recording

Darling, S. (Speaker). (1988). To kill a mockingbird (Cassette). United States: Recorded Books.

Musical Score

Beethoven, Ludwig van. (1932). Symphony no. 7 in A, op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson.


Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Motion Picture Spielberg, S. (Director). (1982). E.T. the extra-terrestrial [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

Ryan, K. O., & Schrank, L. (Writers). (2008). Body language I: Beyond words [DVD]. Available from

Single Episode from Television Series

David, L., & Seinfeld, J. (Writers). (1995). The soup nazi [Television series episode]. In Seinfeld. New York: NBC.

Map Retrieved Online

Lewis County Geographic Information Systems (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic map]. Retrieved from

List the primary contributors in the author position and use parentheses to identify their contribution.

For additional examples, see pages 209-210 in the APA Publication Manual (2010).

Online Images

APA provides few instructions or examples on citing images. These examples provide the basic details necessary for a Reference list.

Author. Date. Title of work [description of form]. Retrieved from URL.

Miflin, G. (2008). The royal family [Image]. Retrieved from

Screen name. Date. (image was uploaded to flickr site). Title of work [description of form]. Retrieved Date from URL.


Boy_Wonder. (2009, December 7). The grinch [Image]. Retrieved from

No author/creator, no date. Include: Title of work [description of form]. Retrieved date from URL.

Note: date is included to provide some reference point since no other date information is available.  It is not required.

Banff National Park [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2009 from



Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Retrieved from

Writer or director is different from uploader

Berners-Lee, T. (2006, August 20). Tim Berners-Lee (M.I.T.), father of the World Wide Web comments on net neutrality and the freedom of the Internet [Video file]. Retrieved from

Note: In this example, Tim Berners-Lee is the video's writer and performer; he is responsible for the intellectual content of the video.  This is different from the person who uploaded the video ("heikoxxxxxx" has this credit).  If you are uncertain who to list as an author, ask yourself, "Who is responsible for the intellectual content?"