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Nutrition Citation Style

Citation examples and resources used by the Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research.

Citation Style of the ICMJE - International Committee of Medical Journal Editors

The Mount Nutrition department frequently uses the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations (formerly the Vancouver Style, and based on the Uniform Requirements) as it is the style of many nutrition and biomedical journals, and the Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research.

This citation style requires that you cite your references numerically in the text, numbered in parentheses in order of citation. The full references are listed at the end of the paper as endnotes.

Helpful links:

Other citation styles?

Sample Introduction and References: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice & Research

Style of the Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice & Research (and Uniform Requirements of Biomedical Journals/Vancouver Style, and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors).

Here is a sample introduction from a published paper and the corresponding references (endnotes) at the end:

Kulai T, Rashid, M. Assessment of nutritional adequacy of packaged gluten-free food products. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2014;75(4):186-90. https://doi:10.3148/cjdpr-2014-022.


The treatment of celiac disease and other gluten-related disorders is a strict life-long adherence to a gluten-free (GF) diet. This includes avoiding all foods containing wheat, rye, and barley [1, 2]. Commercially available oats are contaminated with gluten-containing grains, but pure and uncontaminated oats are safe.

The GF diet poses several challenges. Not only is there risk of cross contamination with gluten, there is concern that a GF diet may be deficient in micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals [3, 4]. For example, unlike wheat flour, the flours made from GF grains may not always be fortified with folate and iron. The GF diet may also be high in fat and sugars as these ingredients are used in larger quantities to improve texture and create the binding effects that are missing in baked goods due to the absence of gluten [5]. Consumption of higher calories may result in excessive weight gain and associated health problems. Furthermore, the GF diet may be lower in fibre. Lower intake of fibre has been reported in those on a GF diet compared with controls, despite a similar intake of bread products [2, 6]. This implies that GF breads were relatively deficient in fibre, which is particularly significant as yeast breads and rolls are the largest source of fibre in the American diet [4, 7]. (Similar data for the Canadian diet is unavailable.) Additionally, GF products are reportedly more expensive [8-10].


PLEASE NOTE:  This journal is using square brackets [7] as a preference.  Some citation management applications will insert round brackets (7).



1. Kupper C. Dietary guidelines and implementation for celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:S121–S7. PMID: 15825119. https://doi:10.1053/j.gastro. 2005.02.024.

2. Zarkadas M, Case S. Celiac disease and the gluten-free diet. Topics Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;20(2):127–38. https://doi:10.1097/00008486-200504000-00006.

3. Thompson T. Thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin contents of the gluten-free diet: is there cause for concern? J Am Diet Assoc. 1999;99(7):858–62. PMID: 10405688. https://doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(99)00205-9.

4. Thompson T. Folate, iron, and dietary fiber contents of the gluten-free diet. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000 Nov;100(11):1389–96. PMID: 11103663. https://doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(00)00386-2.

5. Gallagher E, Gormley TR, Arendt EK. Recent advances in the formulation of gluten-free cereal-based products. Trends Food Sci Technol. 2004;15(3–4):143–52. https://doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2003.09.012.

6. Grehn S, Fridell K, Lilliecreutz M, Hallert C. Dietary habits of Swedish adult coeliac patients treated by a gluten-free diet for 10 years. Scand J Nutr. 2001;45:178–82.

7. O’Neil CE, Keast DR, Fulgoni III VL, Nicklas TA. Food sources of energy and nutrients among adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006. Nutrients. 2012;4(12):2097–120. PMID: 23363999. https://doi:10.3390/nu4122097.

8. Stevens L, Rashid M. Gluten-free and regular foods: a cost comparison. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2008;69(3):147–50. PMID: 18783640. https://doi:10.3148/ 69.3.2008.147.

Vancouver Style - Sample Text and References

Examples provided from Dr. Grant's published work:

Excerpt 1: Glycaemic-index (GI) first appeared in the literature in the early 1980s as a means by which to categorize carbohydrate according to glycaemic effect postprandially (1,2). Carbohydrate containing foods can be categorized according to the following GI classes: low-GI (<55); medium GI (55 to 69) and high GI (≥70) (3). The GI is based upon a glucose (reference) scale where glucose has a GI of 100 (using standardized methodology). For instance, the high GI cut point can be expressed as 70/100 (4). Postprandially, starchy foods included in the low-GI category are absorbed more slowly across the intestine than medium or high GI foods. Slow postprandial intestinal absorption of starchy low-GI food results in a gradual increase in blood glucose (BG) and lower peak BG when compared to the prominent peak in BG observed after consuming a high GI food (2,4,5).…

Excerpt 2: …Although these data were published after the publication of the following statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) (2005): “…use of GI can provide additional benefit over that observed when total carbohydrate is considered alone”, American health agencies traditionally were in opposition to GI utility (21,37,38). This traditional position most likely affected the sample’s (American RDs’) perception of GI application. Conversely, Frost et al. (1994) showed that people can successfully and significantly lower diet-GI after verbal and written communication (26). Similar success has been noted by others (28,39).

Reference List:

1. Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH. Glycemic index of foods: A physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34(3):362-366.

2. Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL, Josse RG. The glycemic index: Methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54(5):846-854.

3. Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA). The glycemic index tool. Available online: (accessed 14 April 2015).

4. Wolever TMS. The glycaemic index: A physiological classification of dietary carbohydrate. Cambridge, MA: CABI; 2006.

5. Wolever TMS. Physiological mechanisms and observed health impacts related to the glycaemic index: Some observations. Int J Obes 2006;30 (Suppl 3):S72–S78.

21. Franz MJ. In defense of the American Diabetes Associations recommendations on the glycemic index. Nutr Today 1999;34(2):78–81.

26. Frost G, Wilding J, Beecham J. Dietary advice based on the glycaemic index improves dietary profile and metabolic control in Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 1994;11(4):397–401.

28. Brand-Miller J, Hayne S, Petocz P, Colagiuri S. Low-glycemic index diets in the management of miabetes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 2003;26(8):2261–2267.

37. American Diabetes Association. American Diabetes Association: Clinical practice recommendations 2005. Introduction. Diabetes Care 2005;28 (Suppl 1):S1–S2.

38. Franz MJ, Bantle J, Beebe CA, Brunzell JD, Chiasson J, Garg A, Holzmeister LA, Hoogwerf B, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian A, Purnell JQ, Wheeler M. American Diabetes Association position statement: Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. J Am Diet Assoc 2002;102(1):109–118.

39. Gilbertson HR, Thorburn AW, Brand-Miller JC, Chondros P, Werther GA. Effect of low‑glycemic-index dietary advice on dietary quality and food choice in children with type 1 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77(1):83–90.

AMA Citation Style (American Medical Association)

While similar to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations (Vancouver Style/Uniform Requirements), the AMA citation style has slight variations.

What is Plagiarism?

The Miriam-Webster online dictionary defines plagiarism as the act of stealing and passing off the ideas or words of another as one's own, or to use another's production without crediting the source. Some examples include:

  • buying or downloading entire papers from the Internet;
  • copying a section of a website into your paper and not giving credit to the author;
  • using any quantity of text -- even as little as a sentence -- written by someone else and not using quotation marks around the text or providing a citation;
  • paraphrasing or summarizing someone else's words or ideas without giving credit.
  • Submitting previous course work a second time, or submitting the same paper for multiple assignments (this is called self-plagiarism).
  • using any print or electronic written, musical, artistic or poetic work without acknowledging the original creator

Basically, plagiarism is theft; taking another person's ideas and/or work without giving them credit, whether it was intentional or not.


Sources and image credits:

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Plagiarism. In dictionary. Retrieved February 21, 2021, from

Unshelved © 2002-2015 Overdue Media LLC, all rights reserved. "Unshelved" is a registered trademark of Overdue Media LLC. Used with permission

Academic Integrity at MSVU

The issue of academic integrity is taken very seriously at MSVU. This concept is so intrinsic to teaching, learning and research that professors and librarians can sometimes forget that new members of our academic community are not aware of its importance. 

Mount Saint Vincent University's values:

  • Academic Freedom
  • Accountability
  • Creativity
  • Engagement
  • Professionalism
  • Respect

Read more about the Vision, Mission, and Values of Mount Saint Vincent University.

These values govern university activities; as a member of the university, you should be governed by them too.

Read more about the MSVU Student Guidelines for Conduct in a Virtual Environment. 

The Research Community:
Here are some important points to remember about research and scholarship:

  • Research rarely starts from nothing. Very few ideas are truly original, rather we build on the work done by others.
  • Research is a “community” endeavor. Even if you are working on your essay or assignment alone, you are using the ideas of others: your professor, classmates, authors of books or articles you’ve read.
  • Research ideas and positions are dynamic: they evolve, morph, and often die.

Keeping in mind the ideas of “university values” and a “research community” consider the definition of “integrity” as provided by the Oxford English Dictionary:

having soundness of moral principle; uncorrupted virtue, especially in relation to truth and fair dealing; uprightness, honesty, sincerity.

Academic Integrity:Page in typewriter with text 'integrity' printed
Academic integrity, then, is the pursuit of scholarly activity based on the values of honesty, truth, trust, fairness, respect and responsibility. It will guide the choices you make in your studies and in your research. Academic integrity applies not only to students, but also to faculty and researchers. 

Practicing academic integrity means that you maintain the trustworthiness and believability of academic work. It means never plagiarizing or cheating, never misrepresenting yourself, never falsifying information or handing in the same work twice, never deceiving or compromising the work of others, never working in groups when you have been asked to complete work on your own.



Sources and image credits:

Photo by Tumisu, used under CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication /Cropped from original Integrity by Nick Youngson, used under CC BY-SA 3.0